Equipped with bulldozing shovel, shovel bucket, excavation bucket, loosening device and special transport trailer and other working devices and the corresponding linkage and control mechanism, in order to carry out earthwork shovel transport and traction and other operations of the tractor. General agricultural tractor according to the different operations can be replaced at any time with agricultural equipment, and industrial tractors tend to work with some kind of device and the corresponding special linkage and manipulation mechanism together to form a special motor vehicle, such as bulldozers, excavators (see excavation machinery), scrapers, loaders, motor graders, off-road transport vehicles. Industrial tractors are mostly used for construction, water conservancy projects and mines and other sites, large-scale farmland infrastructure construction often need to be completed with the help of industrial tractors. Industrial tractors according to different structures can also be divided into crawler and wheeled two categories. Most of the large industrial tractors for crawler type, medium power most of the four-wheel drive type.
Composition and characteristics
Modern tractors are generally by the engine, transmission system, steering system, braking system, walking system, hydraulic suspension, traction device, power output device, as well as the cab and seat.
Tractors generally use diesel engine as power, small walk-behind tractors also have installed with gasoline engine. Tractor with diesel engine is generally high-speed small and medium-sized diesel engine, speed is generally 2000 ~ 2800 rpm. 75 kilowatts above the large tractor often use supercharged diesel engine or supercharged and intercooled diesel engine. As the tractor in the field or site large load work, the engine must have a large torque reserve factor and a good filter system.
Used to transmit the engine power to the drive wheels and power output shaft mechanism. According to the needs of different operations, the transmission system can make the drive wheel and power output shaft to obtain different sizes and different directions of torque and the corresponding speed. At the same time, it can cut off the power, so that the tractor stop or stop the rotation of the power output shaft. According to the transmission ratio change method, the transmission system can be divided into two types of stepped and stepless.
Stepped transmission system
Wheeled tractor's graded transmission system generally by the clutch, gearbox, central drive, differential and final drive. Crawler tractor's stepped driveline with steering mechanism (such as steering clutch) instead of differential, and the rest of the wheel tractor is basically the same. Walk-behind tractor's graded transmission system in addition to a few centrifugal or plate clutch and engine direct transmission mode, the general use of belt drive as the first stage of reduction, and the use of dental clutch (embedded clutch) as a steering mechanism.
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